Report 2012

How to cite figures and tables:

Commission of Experts for Research and Innovation (EFI), Berlin (Ed.) (2012): Research, innovation and technological performance in Germany – EFI Report 2012, EFI, Berlin.



Figures

Figure 01: Devlopment in the number of academic and artistic staff and students at German higher education institutions

Figure 02: Financing of higher education institutions in Germany

Figure 03: Development of R&D expenditures and R&D personnel (full-time equivalents) at higher education institutions in Germany

Figure 04: Development of R&D expenditures (at 2000 prices) of higher education institutions 1995 - 2009 in international comparison

Figure 05: Patent and publication intensity of German higher education institutions and non-university research institutions in natural sciences, engineering, medical sciences and agriculture

Figure 06: Full-time academic personnel in universities

Figure 07: Invention disclosures, priority application and exploitation relating to patent exploitation agencies

Figure 08: Published patent applications from higher edcation institutions in total and according to applicant groups; patent application from non-university research institutions

Figure 09: Proportion of students enrolling in MINT subjects of all students enrolling (1995 - 2011)

Figure 10: Absolute growth in the number of students enrolling

Figure 11: Number of start-ups established to exploit a market opportunity per start-ups established for lack of alternative employment options

Figure 12: Development in the number of business start-ups in the knowledge economy in Germany

Figure 13: Start-up rates in 2009 in selected countries

Figure 14: Management problems as causes for business closures: frequency according to industry 

Figure 15: Survival rates of young businesses according to industry

Figure 16: Relevance of financial difficulties as a reason for market exit

Figure 17: Proportion of venture capital investments of national GDP based on the portfolio company's registered office

Figure 18: German Private Equity Barometer

Figure 19: GDP per capita and proportion of national R&D expenditures of GDP  

Figure 20: Proportion of R&D expenditures in the economic sector that are directly or indirectly funded by the government, 2008

Figure 21: Price trend for photovoltaic modules

Figure 22: Structural change and development of export shares in the field of R&D-intensive goods

Figure C1-1: School-leavers qualified for higher education in Germany

Figure C1-3: Foreign students at German higher education institutions

Figure C1-6: Qualification level of the European workforce in 2010

Figure C2-1: R&D intensity in selected OECD countries

Figure C2-2: Internal private sector R&D expenditure relative to revenue

Figure C2-3: State budgets for civilian R&D in selected world regions

Figure C2-4: Internal R&D expenditures of universities and non-university research institutions at constant prices, according to world regions

Figure C3-1: Innovator rate in Germany's industry and knowledge-intensive services

Figure C3-2: Companies with continuous or occasional R&D activities

Figure C3-3: Innovation intensity in Germany's industry and knowledge-intensive services

Figure C3-4: Proportion of revenue generated with new products in Germany's industry and knowledge-intensive services

Figure C3-5: Planned changes in innovation expenditures in Germany's industry and knowledge-intensive services

Figure C3-6: Equity ratios of small and medium-sized industrial enterprises

Figure C3-8: Proportion of venture capital investments as a percentage of national GDP

Figure C3-9: Number of assigned secretariats for technical committees and subcommittees of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO)

Figure C4-1: Start-up rates in Germany's knowledge economy

Figure C4-2: Closure rates in Germany's knowledge economy

Figure C4-3: Company dynamics in Germany according to sector groups

Figure C4-4: Nascent entrepreneurs

Figure C4-5: Opportunity entrepreneurs

Figure C5-1: Development of numbers of transnational patent applications over time, in selected countries

Figure C5-3: Development of high-value technology specialisation index over time, for selected countries

Figure C5-4: Development of cutting-edge technology specialisation index over time, for selected countries

Figure C6-1: Shares of selected countries and regions for all Web of Science publications 2000 and 2010

Figure C6-2: Internatioal alignment of selected countries and regions for Web of Science publications 2000 and 2008

Figure C6-3: Scientific regard for Web of Science publications from selected countries and regions 2000 and 2008

Figure C7-1: Development of gross value added in different business sectors in Germany

Figure C7-3: Countries' and country groups' shares in global value added in the manufacturing sector

Figure C7-4: Labour input shares of R&D-intensive industries and knowledge-intensive services

Figure C7-5: Shares of R&D-intensive industries and knowledge-intensive services in value added

 

Tables

Table 01: R&D expenditures of foreign multinational enterprises in Germany

Table 02: Proportion of German companies' foreign R&D expenditures of overall R&D expenditures

Table 03: Relevance of different modes of collaboration according to university professors and heads of non-university research institutions

Table 04: Proportion of tertiary graduates in engineering and natural sciences subjects of all graduates in 1998, 2000, and 2005 to 2007 in international comparison

Table 05: Proportion of women among graduates from higher education institutions in engineering and natural sciences subjects (2000 and 2009) in international comparison

Table 06: Proportion of women among graduates according to subjects in 2009 and 2000: Germany and the OECD in comparison

Table 07: Proportion of female higher education graduates among all graduates from first-degree studies for the years 1995, 2000, and 2005 to 2008 according to subject groups

Table 08: Drop-out rates for German students in first-degree studies in 2006 according to subjects groups, types of diploma and selected fields of study

Table 09: Examples of Chinese world market leaders in growth areas

Table 10: Shares of leading countries in publications from the Science Citation Index (SCI) and the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) as well as citation rates

Table 11: Development in patent applications and granting of patents by the Chinese Patent Office

Table C1-2: Share of new tertiary students in the relevant age group in selected OECD countries

Table C1-4: Graduates and subjects studied

Table C1-5: Further training according to employment status and qualification level

Table C2-5: Internal R&D expenditures of companies in Germany according to origin of funds, industry, size, and technology classes, 2009

Table C3-7: Venture capital investments

Table C5-2: Transnational patent applications in the field of high technology: absolute numbers, intensity and growth rates in 2009

Table C7-2: Development of employment covered by social security in the business sector in Germany

Table C7-6: Export specialisation (Relative Export Adantage, RXA) of selected countries, for R&D-intensive goods

Table C7-7: Comparative advantages (Revealed Comparative Advantage, RCA) of selected countries, for foreign trade in research-intensive goods)