Report 2017

How to cite figures and tables:

Commission of Experts for Research and Innovation (EFI), Berlin (Ed.) (2017): Research, innovation and technological performance in Germany - EFI Report 2017, EFI, Berlin.

 

Infographics

Infographic B1: The science system

Infographic B2: Transfer

Infographic B3: Innovation in established companies

Infographic B4: Entrepreneurship

Infographic B5: Governance

Infographic B6: Digital change

Infographic B7: Options for funding R&D through tax credits

 

Figures

Fig. B 1-1-1: R&D expenditure by tertiary education institutions between 2005 and 2014 in billions of euros, and percentage of externally funded R&D expenditure by tertiary education institutions between 2005 and 2014

Fig. B 1-3-1: Development of the number of professorships, the number of scientific and artistic staff who can be classified as young scientists, and the number of students at German tertiary education institutions, 2005 to 2015

Fig. B 1-4-1: Grants from the Federal Government and the Länder for non-university research organisations and the German Research Foundation (DFG), 2005 to 2016

Fig. B 1-4-2: Development of publications by nonuniversity research organisations, tertiary education institutions, Germany, EU-15 and the world, 2001 to 2014 (as percentages)

Fig. B 1-4-3: Development of the excellence rate of publications by non-university research organisations, tertiary education institutions, Germany, EU-15 and the world (as percentages)

Fig. B 1-4-4: Spin-offs from non-university research organisations, 2005 to 2015

Tab. B 1-4-5: Spin-offs from tertiary education institutions and research institutions that are financed by the High-Tech Gründerfonds (HTGF), 2005 to 2015

Fig. B 1-5-1: Net migration of publishing researchers in selected countries between 2005 and 2013

Fig. B 1-5-2: Grants of the European Research Council (ERC) according to the country of residence of the funded scientists' research institution, 2007 to 2014

Fig. B 1-5-3: Grants of the European Research Council (ERC) according to the country of residence of the funded scientists' research organisation and according to the scientists' nationality, 2007 to 2014

 

Fig. B 2-2-1: Clusters currently funded by the EU, the Federal Government and the Länder

Fig. B 2-2-2: Overview of the Federal Government's cluster-policy measures

 

Fig. B 3-1-1: Number of new students at tertiary education institutions and in the first year of the dual system of vocational schools in the former territory of the Federal Republic, 1965 to 2014

Fig. B 3-1-2: Percentages of men and women in academic careers, 2005 and 2014

Fig. B 3-1-3: Percentages of men and women in the private sector in 2006 and 2013

Tab. B 3-2-1: Percentages of funding disbursed by the BMBF to the private sector by areas of funding, 2009 to 2015

Tab. B 3-2-2: Percentages of funding granted under the ZIM to different fields of technology

Fig. B 3-3-1: Percentage of innovation-active SMEs (5 to 249 employees) with a lack of internal sources of finance and a lack of suitable skilled personnel in Germany, 2004 to 2014

 

Fig. B 3-4-1: Transnational patents for selected countries, 2005 to 2013

Fig. B 3-4-2: R&D expenditure within and outside Germany classified by location of company headquarters, 2005 to 2013

Fig. B 3-4-3: Dynamics of total worldwide R&D expenditure by the 100 German corporate groups with the strongest research divisions in selected industries, 2005 to 2015

 

Fig. B 4-1-1: Development of percentage start-up rates in selected European countries from 2008 to 2014

 

Tab. B 5-1-1: Percentages of expenditure by the Federal Government on research and development by areas of funding, 2009 to 2016

Tab. B 5-2-1: Public procurement as a percentage of GDP, 2007 to 2015

 

Fig. B 6-2-1: Quality levels of German e-government services by international comparison, 2016

 

Tab. B 7-2: Design variants of tax-based R&D funding in selected countries

Tab. B 7-4: Study results on the effectiveness of taxbased R&D funding: impact of R&D user costs and tax-revenue shortfalls on R&D expenditure in different countries

Fig. B 7-5: Distribution of internal R&D expenditure in the German economy in 2015

Tab. B 7-6: Tax-revenue shortfall as a result of tax-based R&D funding in Germany at different subsidy rates in 2013

Tab. B 7-7: Tax-revenue shortfalls when a tax credit is limited to R&D personnel expenditure, in different workforce-size classes of qualifying companies and with varying subsidy rates in 2013

 

Fig. C 1-1: Qualification levels of gainfully employed persons in selected EU countries, 2015 (as percentage)

Tab. C 1-2: Number of new tertiary students as a percentage of the relevant age group in selected OECD countries and China

Fig. C 1-3: School-leavers qualified for higher education in Germany, 1970 to 2025 (figures after 2016 are projections)

Tab. C 1-4: Number of first-time graduates and subject-structure rates

Fig. C 1-5: Foreign students at German tertiary education institutions

Tab. C 1-6: Percentage participation of individuals and companies in further training

 

Fig. C 2-1: R&D intensity in selected OECD countries and China, 2005 to 2015 (as percentage)

Fig. C 2-2: State budget estimates for civil R&D

Tab. C 2-3: Distribution of gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) by performing sector, 2005 and 2015

Tab. C 2-4: R&D intensity of Germany's Länder, 2003 and 2013 (as percentage)

Tab. C 2-5: Internal R&D spending by companies: origin of funds, economic sector, company size and technology category, 2013

Fig. C 2-6: Internal corporate R&D expenditure as a percentage of turnover from the company's own products, 2013, 2014 and 2015

 

Fig. C 3-1: Innovation intensity in 2014 by European comparison (as percentage)

Fig. C 3-2: Innovation intensity in industry and knowledge-intensive services in Germany (as percentage)

Fig. C 3-3: Percentage of turnover generated by new products in industry and knowledgeintensive services

Fig. C 3-4: Number of secretariats listed by the technical committees and subcommittees of the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)

 

Fig. C 4-1: Directly and indirectly state-funded R&D spending in the private sector in 2014 as a percentage of national GDP

Fig. C 4-2: Venture-capital investment as a percentage of national gross domestic product in 2014 and 2015

Fig. C 4-3: Development of venture-capital investment in Germany, 2007 to 2015, in billions of euros

 

Fig. C 5-1: Start-up rates in 2014 by international comparison (as percentage)

Fig. C 5-2: Start-up rates in Germany's knowledge economy, 2005 to 2015 (as percentage)

Fig. C 5-3: Closure rates in Germany's knowledge economy, 2005 to 2015 (as percentage)

Fig. C 5-4: Start-up rates by Länder, 2013 to 2015 (as percentage)

 

Fig. C 6-1: Development of the number of transnational patent applications in selected countries over time

Tab. C 6-2: Absolute number, intensity and growth rates of transnational patent applications in the field of R&D-intensive technology in 2014

Fig. C 6-3: Development of the specialisation index in selected countries over time in the field of high-value technology

Fig. C 6-4: Development of the specialisation index in selected countries over time in the field of cutting-edge technology

 

Fig. C 7-1: Percentages of all publications in the Web of Science from selected countries and regions, 2005 and 2015

Fig. C 7-2: International alignment (IA) of publications in the Web of Science from selected countries and regions, 2005 and 2013 (index values)

Fig. C 7-3: Scientific regard (SR) of publications in the Web of Science from selected countries and regions, 2005 and 2013 (index values)

 

Tab. C 8-1: Revealed comparative advantage (RCA) of selected countries in foreign trade in research-intensive goods, 2000 to 2015

Fig. C 8-2: R&D-intensive industries and knowledgeintensive services as a percentage of value added, 2000 and 2014

Fig. C 8-3: Development of gross value added in different economic sectors in Germany, 2001 to 2014, in billions of euros

Fig. C 8-4: Development of the number of employees subject to social insurance contributions in different industrial sectors of the economy in Germany, 2008 to 2015