Report 2016

How to cite figures and tables:

Commission of Experts for Research and Innovation (EFI), Berlin (Ed.) (2016): Research, innovation and technological performance in Germany - EFI Report 2016, EFI, Berlin.

 

Infographics

Infographic B1: The contribution of SMEs to research and innovation in Germany

Infographic B2: Robotics in transition

Infographic B3: Business models of the digital economy

Infographic B4: E-government in Germany: much room for improvement

 

Figures

Tab. A 1-2: Examples of market failure relating to social innovations and examples of instruments in an extended R&I policy framework

Tab. A 2-1: Design of existing patent box schemes

Fig. A 2-3: Calculation of tax-privileged income under the nexus approach

Fig. B 1-2: Innovation expenditure by SMEs (10 to 249 employees) as a percentage of the turnover of all SMEs; average figures for 2008, 2010 and 2012

Fig. B 1-4: Innovation expenditure per innovation-active SME (10 to 249 employees); average figures for 2008, 2010 and 2012 (in thousands of euros)

Fig. B 1-5: Innovation intensity and R&D intensity of SMEs (5 to 249 employees), 2006 until 2014 (figures in percent)

Fig. B 1-6: Development of innovation expenditure by SMEs (5 to 249 employees) according to R&D activity, 2006 to 2015

Tab. B 1-7: Patent activities and innovation successes of SMEs from 2010 to 2012

Fig. B 1-8: Distribution of obstacles to innovation in innovation-active SMEs (5 to 249 employees) in Germany, 2012 to 2014 (figures in percent)

Tab. B 1-9: Overview of Federal Government R&D funding benefiting SMEs

Fig. B 1-10: SMEs receiving public innovation funding as a percentage of all SMEs (5 to 249 employees) in Germany, 2004 to 2012

Fig. B 1-11: Direct and indirect public financing of R&D in SMEs as a proportion of GDP (per mille)

Fig. B 1-12: Direct and indirect public financing of R&D in SMEs as a percentage of total R&D expenditure by SMEs

Tab. B 2-2: Development of the number of industrial robots in manufacturing in selected countries from 2011 to 2014

Fig. B 2-3: Distribution of the number of industrial robots across important sectors in selected countries, 2014

Fig. B 2-4: Robot density in manufacturing and vehicle construction in selected countries, 2014

Fig. B 3-2: Market capitalisation of the internet economy and the ICT sector: comparison of countries 2005-2015 (index, base year 2005) and absolute figures for 2015

Fig. B 3-3: Market capitalisation of US companies in the ICT sector and the internet economy

Fig. B 3-4: Market capitalisation of German companies in the ICT industry and the internet economy

Tab. B 3-5: Corporate value per end user

Fig. B 3-7: Number of business start-ups in the internet economy in Germany, 2000 to 2014

Tab. B 3-9: Selected holdings and take-overs

Fig. B 3-12: Importance of digital technologies for manufacturing and value added by company size (turnover), percentage of respondents

Fig. B 4-3: Quality levels of German e-government services by international comparison, 2014

Tab. B 4-4: Full digitisation of central services for citizens

Tab. B 4-5: Full digitisation of central services for companies

Fig. C 1-1: Qualification levels of gainfully employed persons in selected EU countries, 2014 (figures in percent)

Tab. C 1-2: Number of new tertiary students as a percentage of the relevant age group in selected OECD countries and China

Fig. C 1-3: School-leavers qualified for higher education in Germany, 1970 to 2025 (figures after 2015 are projections)

Tab. C 1-4: Number of first-time graduates and subject structure rates

Fig. C 1-5: Foreign students at German tertiary education institutions

Tab. C 1-6: Percentage participation of individuals and companies in further training

Fig. C 2-1: R&D intensity in selected OECD countries and China, 2004 to 2014 (figures in percent)

Fig. C 2-2: State budget estimates for civil R&D

Tab. C 2-3: Distribution of gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) by performing sector, 2004 and 2014

Tab. C 2-4: R&D intensity of Germany’s Länder, 2003 and 2013 (figures in percent)

Tab. C 2-5: Internal R&D spending by companies: origin of funds, economic sector, company size and technology category, 2013

Fig. C 2-6: Internal corporate R&D expenditure as a percentage of turnover from the company’s own products, 2012, 2013 and 2014

Fig. C 3-1: Innovation intensity by European comparison, 2012 (figures in percent)

Fig. C 3-2: Innovation intensity in industry and knowledge-intensive services in Germany (figures in percent)

Fig. C 3-3: Percentage of turnover generated by new products in industry and knowledge-intensive services

Fig. C 3-4: Number of secretariats listed by the technical committees or sub-committees of the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)

Fig. C 4-1: R&D spending in the business sector directly and indirectly funded by the public sector in 2013 as a percentage of national GDP

Fig. C 4-2: Venture-capital investment as a percentage of national GDP in 2013 and 2014

Fig. C 4-3: Development of venture-capital investment in Germany, 2007 to 2014, in billions of euros

Fig. C 5-1: Start-up rates by international comparison, 2013 (figures in percent)

Fig. C 5-2: Start-up rates in Germany’s knowledge economy, 2005 to 2014 (figures in percent)

Fig. C 5-3: Closure rates in Germany’s knowledge economy, 2005 to 2014 (figures in percent)

Fig. C 5-4: Start-up rates by Länder, 2012 to 2014 (figures in percent)

Fig. C 6-1: Development of the number of transnational patent applications in selected countries

Tab. C 6-2: Absolute number, intensity and growth rates of transnational patent applications in the field of R&D-intensive technology in 2013

Fig. C 6-3: Development of the specialisation index in selected countries: high-value technology

Fig. C 6-4: Development of the specialisation index in selected countries: cutting-edge technology

Fig. C 7-1: Percentages of all publications in the Web of Science that stem from selected countries and regions, 2004 and 2014

Fig. C 7-2: International alignment (IA) of publications in the Web of Science from selected countries and regions, 2004 and 2012 (index values)

Fig. C 7-3: Scientific regard (SR) of publications in the Web of Science from selected countries and regions, 2004 and 2012 (index values)

Tab. C 8-1: Revealed comparative advantage (RCA) of selected countries in foreign trade in research-intensive goods, 2000 to 2013

Fig. C 8-2: R&D-intensive industries and knowledge-intensive services as a percentage of value added, 2000 and 2013

Fig. C 8-3: Development of gross value added in different economic sectors in Germany, 2001 to 2013, in billions of euros

Fig. C 8-4: Development of employment subject to social insurance contributions in different industrial sectors of the economy in Germany, 2008 to 2014